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What you should know about Retirement Savings

#RetirementSavings #Employee #Employer #Employeebenefits


What you should know about retirement savings

退休儲蓄帳戶須知



When you're thinking ahead about retirement plans, tax planning should be part of your decision-making from the beginning. Depending on your situation you may qualify for either a tax-deferred, a tax-exempt account, you might have the option or the necessity to choose a 403(b) plan or even a Solo 401(k). Either way, your retirement savings account might be one of the most important financial decisions one can make, so it's important to know their differences and how each of them works, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Check it out.

在你為自己的退休計劃作準備的時候,納稅計劃應該成為你做決定的重要考量部分。根據你的情況,你可能有資格申請延稅或免稅退休帳戶,例如你可以選擇403(b)退休計劃,或者選擇個人/獨立 401(k)退休計劃。無論如何選擇,你的退休儲蓄帳戶是最重要的財務計劃決定之一。所以,了解各個退休帳戶之間的區別,其各自的功能,以及它們的優缺點都是非常重要的。我們一起學習吧。


Tax-Deferred Retirement Accounts

延稅退休帳戶


Tax-deferred accounts allow you to realize immediate tax deductions up to the full amount of your contribution, but future withdrawals from the account will be taxed at your ordinary income rate. The most common tax-deferred retirement accounts in the United States are traditional IRAs and 401(k) plans. Essentially, as the name of the account implies, taxes on income are "deferred" to a later date.

延稅退休賬戶可以將全部退休帳戶供款額作為稅額扣減,但是,在將來從退休帳戶中提款時,將按照你的正常收入税率來扣稅。在美國最常見的延稅退休帳戶是傳統IRA和401(k)退休計劃。正如退休計劃的名稱一樣,所得稅是“延遲”到以後再繳納。


For 2020 and 2021, individuals are allowed to contribute as much as $19,500 to a 401(k) plan, plus a $6,500 catch-up contribution if they are 50 or older. For 2020 and 2021, you can contribute a maximum of $6,000 to a traditional IRA (those 50 or over can add an additional $1,000).

對於2020年和2021年,個人可以為401(k)退休計劃供款最高到$19,500美元,如果年齡在50歲或以上的人,則可以再增加$6,500美元的供款額。在2020年和2021年,最多可以向傳統的IRA供款$6,000美元(年齡在50歲或以上的人,則可以再增加$1,000美元的供款額)。


Participation in a workplace plan and the amount you earn may also reduce the deductibility of some of your traditional IRA contributions.

員工所參加的雇主提供的退休計劃和收入,都有可能會減少傳統IRA供款的稅額抵扣額度。


Tax-Exempt Retirement Accounts

免稅退休帳戶


Tax-exempt accounts don't deliver a tax benefit when you contribute to them. Instead, they provide future tax benefits; withdrawals at retirement are not subject to taxes. Since contributions into the account are made with after-tax dollars, there is no immediate tax advantage. The primary advantage of this type of structure is that investment returns grow tax-free.

免稅退休帳戶對你的退休帳戶供款沒有可以立即稅額抵扣的好處,但是,它可以提供對未來的繳稅優惠,即退休時從退休帳戶提款無需繳稅。因為向退休帳戶的供款已經是稅後收入,所以沒有立即抵扣稅額的優惠。最主要優點就是投資收益免稅。


Popular tax-exempt accounts in the U.S. are the Roth IRA and Roth 401(k).

美國普遍的免稅退休帳戶是羅斯IRA和羅斯401(k)。


With a tax-deferred account, taxes are paid in the future, but with a tax-exempt account, taxes are paid right now. However, by shifting the period when you pay taxes and allowing for tax-free investment growth, major advantages can be realized.

延稅退休帳戶是在未來繳稅,而免稅退休帳戶是立即繳稅。但是,通過改變繳稅期限並允許免稅投資增長,可以實現其重要的優勢。


Because the benefits of tax-exempt accounts are realized as far as 40 years into the future, some people ignore them. However, young adults who are either in school or are just starting work are ideal candidates for tax-exempt accounts. At these early stages in life, their taxable income and the corresponding tax bracket are usually minimal but will likely increase in the future.

由於免稅退休帳戶的益處要在未來40年才會體現,因此有些人會忽略它的好處。但是,無論是在學校還是剛開始工作的年輕人都很適合選擇免稅退休帳戶。在這個階段,需繳稅收入和相應的稅率通常很少,但在將來非常有可能會增加。


By opening a tax-exempt account and investing the money into the market, an individual will be able to access these funds along with the additional capital growth without any tax concerns. Since withdrawals from this type of account are tax-free, taking money out in retirement will not push someone into a higher tax bracket.

通過建立免稅退休賬戶,並將供款投資到市場中,可以獲得這些資金以及額外的資本增長,而無需擔心任何稅收問題。因為,從這種類型的退休帳戶中提款是免稅的,所以退休時的提款不會被作為正常收入的一部分而繳納更高的稅率。


403(b) Plan

403(b)退休計劃


A 403(b) plan is a retirement account for certain employees of public schools and tax-exempt organizations. Participants include teachers, school administrators, professors, government employees, nurses, doctors, and librarians.

403(b)退休計劃是公立學校和免稅組織為特定的員工而設立的退休帳戶,包括教師,學校行政人員,教授,政府員工,護士,醫生和圖書館員。


The 403(b) plan is in many ways similar to its better-known cousin, the 401(k) plan. Each offers employees a tax-advantaged way to save for retirement. Both have the same basic contribution limits: $19,500 in 2020 and 2021. The combination of employee and employer contributions is limited to the lesser of $58,000 in 2021 or 100% of the employee's most recent yearly salary. Also, both offer Roth options and require participants to reach age 59½ to withdraw funds without incurring an early withdrawal penalty. Like a 401(k), the 403(b) plan offers $6,500 catch-up contributions for those age 50 and older in 2020 and 2021.

403(b)退休計劃在很多方面與眾所週知的401(k)退休計劃很相似。兩個退休計劃都為員工提供了繳稅優惠的退休儲蓄方式。兩者都有相同的基本供款額度:2020年和2021年為$19,500美元。員工和雇主的共同供款額度上限為2021年的$58,000美元,或員工最近一年100%的年薪。此外,兩者都提供羅斯退休計劃的選擇,並要求參與計劃的人需年滿59½歲才能提款,以避免產生提早提款的處罰。與401(k)退休計劃一樣,403(b)退休計劃在2020年和2021年為50歲或以上的老年人提供$6,500美元的額外供款額度。


Earnings and returns on amounts in a regular 403(b) plan are tax-deferred until they are withdrawn and tax-deferred if the Roth 403(b) withdrawals are qualified distributions. Employees with a 403(b) may also be eligible for matching contributions, the amount of which varies by employer. Many 403(b) plans vest funds over a shorter period than 401(k)s, and some even allow immediate vesting of funds, which 401(k)s rarely do. Also, certain nonprofits or government agencies allow employees with 15+ years of service to make additional catch-up contributions. Under this provision, you can contribute an additional $3,000 a year up to a lifetime limit of $15,000 and, unlike the usual retirement plan catch-up provisions, you don't have to be 50 or older to take advantage of this. Finally, 403(b) plans are not required to meet the onerous oversight rules of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).

常規403(b)退休計劃中的收益是延稅的,直到被提取時才需繳稅;如果羅斯403(b)的提款是合格的,則提款是延稅的。參與403(b)退休計劃的員工也可能有資格獲得匹配供款,其額度因雇主而異。許多403(b)退休計劃比401(k)退休計劃授予資金的期限更短,甚至有些可以立即授予資金,而401(k)則不可以。此外,特定的非營利組織或政府機構允許服務超過15年的員工提供額外的供款。根據這項規定,你可以每年額外供款$3,000美元,最高終生限額為$15,000美元,與普通的退休計劃額外供款規定不同,不必年滿50歲或以上即可享受此好處。最後,403(b)退休計劃不需要滿足《員工退休收入保障法》(ERISA)的嚴格監督規則。


In most instances, funds are withdrawn from a 403(b) plan before age 59½ are subject to a 10% tax penalty. One may avoid this penalty under certain circumstances, such as separating from an employer at age 55 or older, needing to pay a qualified medical expense, or becoming disabled. Also, 403(b) may offer a narrower choice of investments than the other types of retirement plans. For 403(b)s that don't have ERISA protection, accounts may lack the same level of protection from creditors as plans that require ERISA compliance. Another disadvantage of non-ERISA 403(b)s include their exemption from nondiscrimination testing. Done annually, this testing is designed to prevent management-level or highly compensated employees from receiving a disproportionate amount of benefits from a given plan.

多數情況下,在59½歲之前從403(b)退休計劃提款,需要繳納10%的稅額罰款。但在特定情況下是可以避免這項罰款,例如員工在55歲或以上離開原雇主,需要支付合格的醫療費用或造成殘疾。403(b)退休計劃提供比其他類型的退休計劃較少的投資選擇。對於沒有ERISA保護的403(b)退休計劃,退休帳戶可能缺乏與需要遵守ERISA的退休計劃相同的免債權人保護水平。另一個缺點則包括免於非歧視檢視,該檢視每年進行一次,旨在防止管理層或高薪員工從計劃中獲得不成比例的收益。


Solo 401(k)

個人/獨立401(k)退休計劃


Self-employed individuals who meet certain requirements can set up a solo 401(k) to save for retirement, this type of plan offers several benefits over other types of retirement accounts. One of the main benefits is that contribution limits are typically higher than other retirement plans.

滿足特定要求的自僱雇主可以設立個人/獨立的401(k)退休計劃來儲存退休金,這種計劃相對於其他類型的退休帳戶提供了許多好處。主要好處之一是供款額度通常高於其他退休計劃。


In order to invest in a solo 401(k), you must meet certain requirements. The first stipulates that you, and not an employer, are responsible for your income. Sole proprietors, small business owners without employees (though spouses can contribute if they work for the business), independent contractors, and freelancers typically fit this description. The second requirement is that you must have earned income. This can be verified through tax records.

為了投資個人/獨立401(k)退休計劃,必須滿足一定的要求。第一條規定是你應對自己的收入負責,而不是雇主。獨資經營者,沒有員工的小公司業主(其配偶可以為公司工作),獨立承包商和自由職業者通常都符合此規定。


With a traditional individual plan, you invest your dollars pretax, effectively claiming a tax break during your working years. When you reach retirement age, you pay income taxes on the funds you withdraw—including the money your investments have earned over the years.

傳統的個人退休計劃,用扣稅前的收入投資,可以在未來的工作期間要求減稅。在達到退休年齡時,從退休帳戶中提款(包括這些年來的投資收益),則需繳納所得稅。


Roth plans are funded with after-tax dollars. Since you've already given the IRS its cut, withdrawals are tax-free when it's time to retire. That's totally tax-free, both the amount you paid in and the returns the account earned.

羅斯退休計劃是稅後收入。因為已經扣減了國稅局的稅額,所以在退休時提款是免稅的,無論是退休帳戶供款,還是所獲得的收益,都完全是免稅的。 Source 文章來源: investopedia.com

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